Saturday, February 19, 2011


whitewater rafting is an activity pengarungan river rafting / cascade using rubber boat, kayak, or canoe and paddle as a rower

Activities lately pemkai increasingly attracting the interest of both from the nature lover or the public, actually have the highest accident potential in the sport. But if done with the procedures, knowledge, and sufficient expertise will turn into activities that are very interesting and challenging.

Expertise and capabilities across the river with very, very dependent on the frequency of exercise and hours of flying across the river itself. If to be a reliable Skipper other than the above requirements, also requires an understanding and mastery of emergencies that occur in the river and mitigation measures (safety and rescue).

Also a good understanding of the river forming process, properties, and other formations that exist along the river should be under our control to improve comfort pengarungan also the river that we do. And the most important thing we must always remember is when pengarungan river, whether related to the nature around rivers, cultural and social life of communities along the river that we are navigating.

A more in-depth knowledge about the formation of the river will not be discussed here because it is very broad and can students know in science geomorphology further, but related things further we will describe here will be useful in pengarungan river.

River discharge
Is the magnitude of river flow per unit time. The size of the river discharge is very important to know, because this is directly related to pengarungan river we will do. The size of river flow is influenced by:

Volume of water
The volume of water is the number / content of the water we count in the three-dimensional measurement units (meter3). Practical ways we can know by looking at water level and adjusted to the width of the river, or by requesting information on local water department, so can we confirm whether the river is feasible or not for we are navigating and the time to pengarungan a safe place.

The slope of the River
The slope or gradient of the river affects the river flow rate, which shows the average score decreased river rtata along a certain distance (m or km). River with a slope of up to 15 m / km has a slow flow and is easy to be forded, while above 40 m / km the flow is fast and dangerous to be forded.

River Flows
Is the intended direction of water flow caused by differences in height. Flow velocity depends on the gradient and size of river. With the same volume, a narrower river size or larger gradient will have a higher speed than the river which has a size larger or smaller gradient.

Besides water, the river was also filled with water content, such as rocks that have the greatest composition. The existence of this stone greatly affect the flow of existing water and cause water to split and form a groove resembles the letter V.

While the various currents that exist are:

Mainstream (mainstream)
It is the greatest flow if all the currents are divided into multiple streams and is part of palingmudah recognized. With this condition the primary flow has the greatest strength and most visible form of a large tongue.

On a straight river, the mainstream is usually located in the center and the branch of the river flow is at the outer side of the river caused by centrifugal force. In pengarungan river, the mainstream is usually chosen as the main route because the current is most rapid and large boat that will accelerate again.

Waves stand (Standing Wave)
Ordinary terda [pat at the end of the tongue of water. These waves occur because of conflicts of strong currents on the surface with a flat Artus slow flowing underneath it that causes water to rise upward to form a permanent wave. This formation berangkai of the largest to the smallest.

Waves with a height of 3 meters is called Haystack. Wave with a steep peak and peak split section has a power behind the high and very dangerous, 
whereas the peak meimiliki relatively flat / blunt is a safe path.

Flow Behind (Reversal)
The change is quite drastic fall field-circuit the usual spin on what we call holes. Fall in a fairly vertical field will cause the flow of play from the bottom with rotary power is stronger than usual, called Hydrolic.

At the bottom of the river is quite steep but basically ynag suddenly ramps causing strong currents blocked and turned away form the spin on it, called Back Curling.

All this type of flow caused the boat stopped even if large enough will cause the best boat or sucked inward. Better to avoid this stream, but if you've already earned a boat and rowing in the straight forward dalamdalam to achieve forward flow in the river so it can get out from behind these flows.

Eddy's Flow
Ordinary formed behind the rocks or bend where the water stopped and turned back to the upstream direction to form a strong enough pusaran.putaran round of turbulence would be dangerous because it can cause the boat back curling round and round and upside down, but for which no strong currents, this current is useful for the rest, where the rescue, and a place to observe the path in front before making your next maneuver.

Other formations
Is a material other than water found along the river, namely:

rock (rock, boulder)
Location of rock which caused irregular variations in river flow that requires the ability to maneuver through it. Large stones and poking out the surface can cause the boat caught (wrapped).

There at the bend of the river due to erosion of the river wall to form a cavity. In a cavity large enough to cause the swirling currents that cause the object that goes into it is difficult to come again.

Barriers (Strainer)
Are obstacles in the form of fallen trees on the river flow that would cause the boat caught.

Narrowing of the River (Contriction, bottleneck)
Current will flow rapidly in this region, so that boats are getting faster rate than we will, and will complicate pengarungan.

River siltation (Shallows)
Shallow river that usually happens because the widening of the river so the boat can not pass because the boat will be stuck on the riverbed.

The ruins of stone / rock

Cascade is part of the river flow faster between that wing rock or barriers that form the turbulence or flow back, is the part that is difficult to pass but this is where the challenge lies in pengarungan river. Rapids are formed from the change speed and direction of flow, gradient difference, and the formation of the riverbed, the river width changes, and changes in water volume. Variations of the above-component kompionen causes the formation of scale / degree of difficulty (grade) cascade.

There are two systems used in this rafting, namely western scale of 1 -10 introduced by Doc Marston ruling Grand Canyon and international scale of I - IV as a table (attachment).


Life Vest / Life Jacket
In addition to the buoyancy in accordance with our body, comfort when used as a condition that can buoy us ergunakan. Good composition is a buoy that contains a thick foam and the back of the buoys that are thinner than the front so that if we fell in water and passed out, will be in the supine condition. In addition there is the back of the head protector collar on the back of the buoy.

Clothing that is not heavy when wet and provide a free space is suitable for use. Try a long-sleeved to protect the skin to protect skin from the sun.

Protect your feet from being scratched or injured. Canvas shoes or parasites that do not interfere when we swim can be used.

Protecting the head from collision with hard objects, especially when thrown from the boat. Choose a lightweight, break resistant, and does not interfere with eye sight and hearing and fitting size.

Survival Kit
Consisting of lighters, pocket knives, and other survival equipment. It's better if we pack in our bags so it's easy waist clothing. For a captain / leader can be coupled with the pulling / pulley, carabiner, whistle, rope prusik, and artificial anchors.

Inflatable BOAT 
This type of boat used for sports use within the heavy current. This boat is made of a flexible and strong material that can be flexible when entering the cascade-cascade.

The front and back of the boat was lifted onto the boat in order to control more easily and efficiently.

Initially, these boats are not dilenkapi with dewatering holes, making the obligatory nautical Rafter to take the bucket when the river, to remove water from the boat.

This condition is considered to disturb and reduce efficiency, so the start is developed innovations that result in the floor of the boat there are valves for aeration, so that while on the surface of the water, boat floor is higher than the surface of the water (inflatable) in order to prevent water entering will come out by themselves through holes in the floor around the boat (SELF bailing)

The capacity of these boats varies, ranging from capacity of 5 persons samapai with 8 people.


As a means of paddle made of strong but lightweight materials and try bright and supple. Good enough material is plastic, but it can also wood, fiberglass, and wood combination with aluminum or fiberglass. To pengarungan river by rubber boat there are two types of rowing namely:

Basically two types of rowing in the same system works. The difference is how to use them. At the Oar only takes one paddler only, so the size is much longer oar Oar

Good material is made of lightweight plastic. There is a stampede pumps and hand pumps. This pump must always be present in every pengarungan.

Besides as fastening the boat and the boat inverting (fold line) is also very function as a means of rescue. To rope rescue (throwing bag), usually made of static kernmantel packed in a bag along thirty to forty meters.

Repair Tools
Used to control a leak in a boat or pump. Tool adhesive / glue, sewing equipment, rubber marks, and some wrenches we can use for repair purposes.

Dry Pack
As the carrier is made of waterproof material with a capacity that were completed long journey that protect food and clothing and other equipment that should not be wet.

Used mainly on the river for the first time we are navigating, to determine the condition of the river so that our travel plans and safe maneuver.

Medical Kit
Adjusted for the number of crew, long pengarungan, and things that might happen along the rivers.

Additional Equipment
To exploration that takes a fairly long period of time can be added communications equipment, camping equipment, and in accordance with additional needs.

Skills across the river does not only require a long time, but also required an understanding of all technical abilities and ability pengarungan river rescue and relief (safety and rescue). So basically a combination of knowledge theoretical and flying hours.

Is the initial observation of the cascade that has not known before mengarunginya can be done on the boat or from the banks of the river, which includes:
  • Observation of a cascade of several points of view
  • Analysis of rafting difficulty level, mencariu safest route, and the possibility of trouble
  • Formulate a plan that is planned, including an agreed route, track reserves, maneuver to be used, and preparation for a rescue team if necessary

For the beginner level, scouting is very wise to always do to avoid things that are not desired. There is no word 'haram' to do the lining or portadging if these rapids are not passable.

is guiding the boat through the river bank,

lift the boat by land.

Rowing Technique

Mechanical Oar
Since it has been equipped with a frame for a seat and oars in the middle of the handle, then the way his seat according to the conditions on the boat. While the technique mendayungnya only forward (forward stroke) and back (backstroke). To turn the boat to paddle right with the combination of forward and backward left or vice versa.

Paddle Technique
There are two kinds of ways to sit in this tekni the cowboy style technique, ie position on horseback, foot paddle boat tube clamp so that one foot outside the boat, but is prone to collision with a stone / river wall. Another way is like a woman riding the motorcycle, the second leg into the inside of the boat.

For how to paddle, as well as how to paddle forward and backward, there are also paddle pull (draw stroke) by putting the paddle away and pulled to the boat, rowing reject (Pry srtoke) datung opposite attraction, as well as rowing beheaded (crossbow draw) by front rowers with paddle pull from the front side of the boat cut the snout.

It takes one who acted as captain / leader who has the authority to take decisions, actions unite the entire crew, and gestured.

Captain does not require a particular status, he is a crew boat that is temporarily responsible for controlling the boat through the instruction or not. For uniformity all the crew, there must be clear and concise command. We often use is:
  • Forward, which means that all forward paddle
  • Back off, means all rowing backwards
  • Turn right, meaning the rowers on the left paddle forward, while the right paddle backwards
  • Turn Left, which means the right paddle forward paddle, while the left paddle backwards
  • Pull the Right, which means rowers pull the right paddle, paddle left rowers rejected
  • Pull the Left, which means rowers pull the left paddle, paddle right rowers rejected
  • Move Right, rowers move left to right
  • Move Left, right rowers move to the left
  • Stop, all rowers to stop rowing

Directions Boat

Up Stream
Is to drive the boat against the current when pengarungan river. This maneuver is sometimes and often takes time to close up the boat eddies or current

Down Stream
Is to drive the boat when pengarungan follow the river flow

Maneuver Boat
It is a basic maneuver in the past to confront the flow of boat in position 45 degrees toward the mainstream

Pivot and Pivot Back
Technique boat quickly turned as he entered the cascade with the bow facing downstream (pivot) or the prow facing upstream (back pivot)

It is a maneuver used by Portuguese sailors directing boat directly to the intended target. This requires embracing the power of the paddle is very strong.

Exit and Entrance into eddies
That must be considered is the speed and angle of incoming boats. Great angle and boat speed must be adjusted to the size of eddies and flow speed.


To maintain the safety of the entire crew, the safety procedures we have to try as early as possible, including:
  • Use equipment standard
  • Mastery and understanding of the techniques and knowledge about rafting
  • Physical and mental preparation
  • Knowing the limits kemampuanTetapi although we have sought the most of it, we still have to prepare themselves for emergencies, such as:

Thrown out of the Boat
If there is try to scream to be known by another crew so relief sought immediately and if possible do not release the paddle to be able to extend the reach and can be used as swimming aids. If it turns out far from the reach of try not to panic and look at the situation and swim toward the river bank or boat.

Namely the correct way to swim with the supine position and legs are in front of us as if we could see our toes. Apabilka into a hole, try to swim to the side or go to the bottom of the river and all follow the flow down to the front.

Hit the Stone (Boom)
If unavoidable, let the boat muzzle still pointing to the stone so that the boat will stop for a moment and turned to follow the flow around the stone and try to remain in a state of rowing crew and passengers move to the middle of the back so as not to bounce and the boat is upside down or stuck in the stone

Boat Reversed
Try to immediately reach out to the boat and climbed over the stern and turned it upside down before another danger waiting ahead. If caught in a boat try to get out to avoid conflict of stone. If it is not possible to reverse, then control the boat in reverse condition and wait until we find a tenag area and allow it to reverse the boat.

Sticking Stone (wrapped)
When the boat crashed into the center of the entire crew of the boat as soon as possible try to move to places where most close to the rocks to avoid the occurrence wrapped. In the event wrapped try to get into the rocks and swim to the edge to remove the boat attached to the stones.

The latest techniques are the 'z-drag', ie, release technique boat by making a rope shape resembling the letter z with the help carabiner and pulley.

Intended to rescue yourself or a friend of ours. Besides, be addressed to the boat or crew boat.

Rescue with a rope
Used if there is a boat crew that was thrown from the boat and washed away, yan done from the ground with ropes meempar way (throwing bag). Before you try to throw a rope for the victim knows the rope thrown to salvation, with the pitcher position at 45 degrees from the victim so that the impulse flow in front of the victim position thrower. For the position of holding the victim in a rescue rope like the following picture.

Rescue boats
In the event wrapped the technique of 'z-drag' as above we can use, but if there is a pinned boat crew, then the response as soon as may be required for life-saving crew, namely by reducing the air pressure boat tore through the boat so the boat crew is caught can get out of the crush.


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