Saturday, February 19, 2011


Any person who travel always have the same hope that is the way it does will run smoothly, safely and comfortably get to the destination. To achieve that, the traveling required of Planning (Planning) Allocation of Resources / Organizing (Organizing) prior to the journey undertaken (Actuating) as well as monitoring (controlling) when making the trip

Travel Preparation procedures tailored to Stay Travel / Expedition both large and small (Mini Session) in the Student Activity Unit Explorers Wilderness and Mountain Climber BHARAWANA is to observe the following:
  • FIELD CONDITIONS (the circumstances and nature of Field): Care should be taken every field conditions, especially those that will go through in detail, either through a topographic map that will be used by field orientation or by searching the literature about the area to be addressed so that it can predict all the necessary equipment and supplies
  • PURPOSE & OBJECTIVES OF TRAVEL : The purpose and objective of travel should be reviewed as it affects the equipment and supplies required to carry.
  • TIME : It should be carefully considered, long berepa problem we will travel, as this would be a matter of supplies that we carry while traveling coupled with reserve supplies that should always be available in case of unexpected things.
  • PERSONNEL CAPABILITIES : From the details mentioned above, tools, equipment and other supplies needed during travel can be measured weight of the load that must be taken.

In addition, the necessary skills and capabilities of personnel in common not only in terms of physical strength, but also mastery of theory and practice in the field of Engineering in Natural Living Free

Planning a trip that mature will help us overcome all kinds of obstacles that may arise.


Many accidents that occur in outdoor activities caused by lack of knowledge and skills possessed by penggiatnya. Surely this can be avoided by increasing the knowledge and skills of the wild berkegiatan open, so have the adequate capabilities. 

Collin mortlock, an outdoor education experts categorize the capabilities required by activists in the open as follows:

  • Technical ability, which is associated with rhythm and balance of movement and efficient use of equipment.
  • The ability of fitness, including specific fitness required for a particular activity, cardiovascular fitness and circulation, as well as conditioning the body's ability to pressure the natural environment.

  • The ability of humanity, namely the development of positive attitudes kesegala aspects to improve. This includes the determination, confidence, patience, concentration, self-analysis, self-reliance, and ability to lead and led. 
  • The ability of understanding the environment, namely the development of awareness of the dangers of a specific environment.
The four abilities are not easy to master properly. But keep in mind that the mastery of these skills will be needed in the wild berkegiatan open.
The concept of the four capabilities that may be simpler if we associate directly with the activities we prepare to do outdoor activities like mountain climbing trip.


The phase - trip planning stage are as follows:
  • Debriefing the ability to select, manage, and use tools, equipment and supplies during the trip such as the technical ability to use a map and compass, the ability of air bivouac, make fire, etc
  • Briefing of the prime physical abilities. It required physical exercises that can maintain and improve fitness.
  • Mental debriefing so it's ready to face the challenges and heavy activity nature. This mental power can only be grown from within oneself.
  • Debriefing better understanding of the natural conditions to be faced. Includes how to choose the right time berkegiatan adapted to natural conditions and environment.


Natural Factors
Includes an understanding of the destination location, terrain that will be pursued, the climate in the area to be addressed, and other things related to the environment. Pengantisipasian this is to do a good literature study, analysis of the map, gathering information from local governments.

Participant Factors
It is associated with personnel travel participants, including the selection of personnel, leaders, hierarchies, job descriptions and responsibilities of each, and the ability of each participant travel.

Implementation Factors
Include technical factors, non-technical, and semi-technical.

Technical factors
Directly related to the level of difficulty of terrain. A few things including the preparation of personnel capabilities, scenarios and operating systems, documentation systems, as well as issues related to safety issues.

Non-technical factors
Carrying capacity of operations that are not associated with the level of difficulty of terrain. Includes administrative and organizational support global operations.

Semi-technical factors
This factor is only found in major expeditions and complex. Directly related to the level of difficulty but are non-technical field. For example, communication problems, the base camp team, advance-team, take in & out team, rescue team, etc.


A good plan will divide these activities into a number of stages refers to the time available and the scope of work. Delays can occur because they have to wait for the completion of stage and ignorance when other work can begin. Plan activities to bervareasi dependent forms of activities to be performed.

For a trip yag has often we do and not too complicated, the above steps are automatically done. In addition to the skills and knowledge about life in the wild is good, to ensure our comfort and safety in the conduct of activities in the wild is also necessary equipment and supplies are good. Since the purpose of each trip is to go back home and doing well wal afiat then we should not let any opportunity at all to the dangers that will arise.

When we go somewhere, then we must know well about how to reach that place, how the environment / nature that we will encounter and customs prevailing in the area.

Knowledge of the habits of local residents are very necessary for us to get a good reception from the locals. This will we need for the closest person who can give help us get into trouble is the value of the local population. Information about those things we can get from people who have visited this area, or from the existing literature.


In general, equipment can be divided into:
  • basic equipment, ie equipment that we always need all the time, such as clothing, cooking utensils and eating / drinking public toilet equipment and personal gear.
  • Special equipment, ie equipment required in accordance with field trips or travel destination whether for research, documentation, climbing cliffs and so forth.
  • Additional equipment, which can be brought or not and more to things comfort.


Which will be discussed here is the equipment for the terrain of the mountain forest.

with the standard provisions:
• Water proof (waterproof)
• The tongue should be shoe to top
• Protect your ankles
• Soles made of rubber and strong (Hard-sol)
• The palm has a large development, a niche that is deep and sharp
• The top is not stiff (flexible)
• Not too heavy and does not hinder the movement
• strap shoes from static material (not stretchy)


Socks useful to protect skin from friction foot directly with shoe and keep feet warm is always in a state. Good socks will be able to keep our feet to breathe.

Socks made of cotton or wool will be very good to meet the requirements above. The thickness of the socks that will be used of course adapted to the terrain to be traversed, so the length socks. It would be very useful if we bring more than one pair of socks for when to travel with wet socks, the feet will be easily scratched.

For more comfortable, use two layers of socks. We use the inside of socks made from cotton that is soft and the exterior is more thicker socks.


Because the activity is running is the main activity in the mountain terrain to travel in the forest then a good pair of field should be to ensure that the movement we do not torture yourself.

A good field pants have the following requirements:
  • Made of soft but strong cotton. Pants made of jeans material is not recommended because when wet will be very heavy and not easy to dry. While the pants are made of cotton in addition to absorb perspiration is also easy to dry.
  • Design briefs provide a free space for our feet. This can be obtained by making a fold at the knees and pipe sizes are not too tight pants.
  • butt section consists of two layers of pants because this part most easily torn. Stitches pants should also be strong.
  • Pants have pockets that are good enough. If there is no pocket it will not be useful, but when too many pockets would be very disturbing. Pockets should have a cover for contents in it are not easily get out.


The principle of the same outfit with a pair of field field is made of materials that comfortable, absorb sweat, easy to dry but quite strong. Better clothes that are used long-sleeved field because it will be useful to protect from the sun, plant thorns, or cold air.

The number of clothing (shirt and trousers) that brought in the course tailored to the terrain and the length of the journey passed. Never allow yourself to wear wet clothes as this will be very dangerous. Bring a change of clothes / reserve sufficient.


Hats useful to protect the head from possible injury from branches / thorn plants, protect from rain or hot sun, especially the back of the head. Hats that are used are made of strong materials, usually cotton, and will be very good when given the air vents.

There are several field hat that can be used according to terrain and needs. For forest mountain terrain should use a jungle hat. As for the field or beach meadow we can use a wider hat like a cowboy hat. When wearing a hat that is too wide to travel the mountain forest will only interfere with the movement.


Uses gloves here is to protect the hands when parting the bush or when using a machete slash. Therefore, gloves should be made of leather that fits with the size of the hand but not too stiff so as not to disturb the movement of our hands.


Utility belt for pants do not sag in addition to also to put the things we need quickly, such as waist knife, machete slash drinking water or P3K equipment. Thus the belt that we use must be made of strong materials such as leather or other strong material.

Notice the head belt mainly seam between belts with rope belt, this part is usually the most vulnerable to extinction. Rope belt that is too small or too large would be very disturbing.


Backpacks are handy to carry all the equipment we need, therefore we should avoid the backpack as an additional burden. In other words we must choose a strong but lightweight backpack. Additionally backpack also be made of water proof material. More attention should be given at the seams backpack is whether strong or not.

There are several types of backpacks are backpacks with the order in and backpack with external frame.

Backpacks with outside the framework more suitable for open terrain such as grassland or beach. For forest mountain terrain, in order to be more suitable because when using outside the framework would disrupt the movement when it comes to the twig pohon.Rangka this backpack would be useful to share the load for evenly throughout the body.

The capacity of the selected pack is adjusted for the goods to be taken. Additional pockets on backpacks are more practical and personal tastes of each.

A good backpack is a comfortable to wear while carrying heavy loads. Leisure backpacks to be given to the granting of soft materials and soft enough that come into contact with the back section, a belt pack and an adjustable lanyard. Look for a combination of adjustment that is most comfortable for you for a heavy load does not feel too heavy.

Currently circulating in the market many different types and brands of backpacks. Do not get too fixated with an expensive price for not necessarily a cheaper backpack worse than an expensive backpack.

To select a backpack that best suits the needs must be carefully chosen. For certain trips maybe we need to bring a daypack when we make the shift short-displacement (eg: research, documentation).


Navigation equipment can be described as our eyes to know the location of where we are. Navigation tools consist of: compass, map, protractor / protaktor, pencils / pens and so forth. Further explanation see materials land navigation.

Cookware consists of:
• Stove
• Fuel
• Place cooking
• Water Containers
• Matches / fire maker
• Spoon fork

There are various field cookers are available in the market. The most common today is the paraffin stove and gas stove. While a relatively new is the stove with methylated fuel. Each has its own advantages and disadvantages.

Paraffin stove with fuel compact shape. But do not hold in storm winds. Gas stove generates heat better than paraffin stove but very risky. Often occur because of gas cylinders exploded hose clogged.

Fuel stove with methylated is not affected by wind and heat generation is better than paraffin and gas. However, the fuel needed to have a larger volume of paraffin.

Place cooked misting commonly used are commonly used by the military. There are two kinds of misting the box and round according to your tastes.

There are variety of containers of water, mineral water bool, vedples, as well as jerry cans. Which must be considered is, the water container in accordance with the necessary capacity and has a dense cover.

Lighters or matches are legion, there is a rod-shaped, with gas or fuel oil. We must always keep our lighters in the dry state. How:
  • for lighters with fuel oil or gas we wrap it with plastic bags for lighter stones do not get wet.
  • to match rods, we can move / change a match container with a watertight tube movie.


Flashlight and spare batteries should be included. Gnakan flashlight dungan excellent light quality, compact shape and not wasteful. When not in use, to prevent the flashlight does not turn on by accident, we can anticipate by reversing one of the batteries or provide isolation at one pole of the battery.
To light the night in a long time we can use candles.


The knife is useful to assist in cooking and a bonfire. Several types of knives that can we carry are:
• Dagger Slash
• Knives waist
• multipurpose pocket knife

Knives should be made of good material such as steel, according to its size and has a protective sheath. There are several types of knives such as Bowie knives, knife throwing, knife Skinner (pengulit) and so forth.


Sleeping equipment is recommended:
• A pair of sleepwear
• thick socks
• Mattress
• Sleeping bag
• Gloves
• skullcaps / Balaklava


A good whistle whistle whistle / scout because the sound does not depend on the strength blowing steady.


related to the field and purpose of travel. When will hold a cliff climbing activities should bring static and dynamic ropes, harnes, etc.. When will hold a whitewater river pengarungan we must carry equipment. For documentation of the activities we have to prepare equipment documentation.


This equipment must be brought tiadak but for convenience it is better included:
• Geiters, Bandages calf muscles to keep fit
• Gaiter, Protect feet from thorns, and prevent the intruding sand shoes
• Nets, Protection from mosquitoes and bees
• Polish shoes

Is the equipment needed in an emergency / survival conditions. Its contents include:
• Tools sew
• Tools sol
• spare laces
• Matches
• Small Scissors
• Equipment P3K
• Fishing Equipment
• Tools noose


Packing in a backpack, should be neat and orderly so as not menggaggu movement. CHARGES WHICH IS CONSIDERED STANDARD OUR BODY third of the weight. Expenses are packed in a backpack attempted to push down the direction perpendicular to the spine and not burden the spine backwards.


  • Sleeping mat shaped like a pipe which is adjusted in size to a backpack
  • Enter a large plastic (bullsack) into the backpack and then input input luggage one by one with a neat and orderly
  • Enter the first order light goods first entered, and so on
  • Goods are required at any time during the run, put at the top (tool Write, Map, Jacket, flashlight, etc.)
  • Efficiency of existing space.



In the outdoors, in 1 day at an altitude below 3500 masl, our bodies need at least 2500 up to 3,000 calories, whereas for altitudes above 3500 masl we need 3000 till 5000 calories in one day.

For that we need to know the calorie content of food that we take during a trip to see it on the food packs. (Usually per 100 g)

One day = 3,000 calories
(600 calories Morning, Afternoon and evening @ 1200 calories)


37 kalori
55 kalori
458 kalori
Chocolate bars (Sweet)
472 kalori
Chocolate bars (bitter)
504 kalori
Chocolate bars (Milk)
381 kalori
Cocoa Powder
298 kalori
Corned beef
241 kalori
Chicken Meat
302 kalori
Goat Meat
206 kalori
Sheep Meat
154 kalori
207 kalori
Papaya Leaves
79 kalori
Cassava Leaves
73 kalori
Beef Jerky
433 kalori
Havermout (oatmeal)
390 kalori
Ice Cream
207 kalori
Salted Dried Fish
193 kalori
89 kalori
Bloated Fish
103 kalori
Cashew (red)
46 kalori
Cashew (green)
56 kalori
Banana heart
31 kalori
345 kalori
Long Beans
357 kalori
590 kalori
326 kalori
83 kalori
151 kalori
73 kalori
Coffee   (without pulp)
352 kalori
294 kalori
363 kalori
59 kalori
725 kalori
Dried Noodles
337 kalori
360 kalori
Banana (Ambon)
99 kalori
Banana (Mas)
127 kalori
Banana (Susu/milky)
118 kalori
Bamboo Shoots
27 kalori
248 kalori
77 kalori
17 kalori
Fruit Jam
239 kalori
Sausage (beef)
452 kalori
Milk Powder
509 kalori
Condensed Milk
336 kalori
132 kalori
Chicken Eggs
162 kalori
Cornstarch (Maizena)
343 kalori
23 kalori
Sweet potatoes
123 kalori
Shrimp (dry)
295 kalori
42 kalori

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