Friday, February 18, 2011


Climate is average weather conditions of an area within a certain period. Weather is the state of air temperature or in a place at a given moment in time. So the weather can be fickle and the climate is relatively fixed for a period of six months (for the tropics).

Tropical and sub-tropical, until the latitude of the earth 40 (Lu and LS), with the properties:
·         Average annual temperature is not too high
·         small daily temperature amplitude
·         There are a lot of heavy rain and cloud

Medium Regional
·         Daily and annual temperature amplitude is small
·         A lot of clouds and rain, especially in the winter, rain in the form of light rain
·         change of season does not occur immediately

CLIMATE LAND (Continental)
Sub-tropical or tropical
·         The amplitude is very large daily
·         small annual amplitude
·         A little rain and wind storm accompanied

Medium Regional
·         The average high temperature in summer
·         The average low temperature in winter
·         The amplitude of annual temperature
·         The amplitude of daily temperature, in the daytime heat and nighttime cold
·         Rarely rains, especially in the summer

The nature of the climate depends on the form of the plains in their respective regions.

Highland Climate
·         There is a plateau region
·         The amplitude of the daily and annual
·         Air dry and very low humidity
·         Rarely rain

Mountain Climate
There are on top of a mountain
·         Daily and annual temperature amplitude is smaller than in areas with high soil climate
·         Frequent rains, especially in mountain areas of wind, sometimes there is snow.

The wind changed direction once every half year, and rain fell in the summer. Earth's surface can also be divided into several regions according to meteorological climate in the area (according to temperature, air pressure, wind and rain). Character climate regions are easily recognizable from the existing plant.

This area is divided into:
Tropical rain climate regions with Tropical forests
In this area there is actually no particular season because almost all the time it rains (at least 6 cm in the driest month.) The nature of the climate is wet and has a character like ilkim sea that has a small temperature amplitude.

Regional Climate Sabana
Having a real dry season because of the influence of monsoons.

Moderate Climate Region
Having a regular change of seasons in a year. West wind blowing and sometimes accompanied by hurricanes.

Regional Wind Pole
This area is divided into the following:
·         Climate tundra - have an average temperature of 10 degrees C in the hottest season.
·         Snow Climate average of 0 degrees C, this climate there is very high in the mountains. The boundary line of snow in certain areas there are polar ilkim at sea level.

Regional Sub-Tropical Climate
There are tropical and temperate areas but can not batasanya ditentukn clearly.

This area is divided into:
·         Desert Region is an area that rarely happens rain
·         Regional Climate Steppa is an area that rarely happens rain but still there are plants

Sub-tropical regions are at 20-40 degrees latitude (N and LS). This area can also be regarded as an area with a temperate climate, with the division of regions as follows:
·         Boreal region Climate: temperate climate and an average temperature of -3 degrees C. The coldest
·         While the Wet Climate: Receive rain throughout the year
·         Climate Sub - Tropical: Summer dry or Mediterranean climate
·         Sub-Tropical Climate: Winter is dry or Chinese Climate


Primary Forest
Visibility depends on the density of existing vegetation, ranging from 5 to 70 meter.Hutan Primary have mature trees around 100 years old and grew up in the area of pristine forest and has not been explored by manusia.Pucuk-shoot of the tree canopy shape (canopy ) a meeting and more than 30 meters high. This causes less light on the bottom and there is a dense thicket.

Secondary Forest
Be an ex-pimer forests that have been exploited and have been allowed into the forest again. There are many shrubs are difficult to penetrate because of the lack of picture field, but can be penetrated with the help of a compass.

Fauna that live in this area vary, there didasarnya reptiles, birds above there are shrubs ang diverse and often there are monkeys in the tree.

Homogeneous Forests
Is a forest that consists of only one crop only.

Heterogeneous forest
Forest is composed of a variety of plants.

Is grassland interspersed by shrubs, this area is an area of transition from the steppe to the forest. And that is the steppe grasslands in the region is to be green in the rainy season and renggas in the dry season.

Transverse section of the profile of the river called the transverse profile of the river and the direction of the river called the longitudinal profile. A lot of water that passes through the elongated profile of a place called sungai.Pada capacity of water straight at the middle surface of the river flow is fastest, called the current thread or flow lines. Longitudinal profile of the river can be divided into:
Upstream Section
The slope of the great river, the water flows fast and powerful force of erosion.

Central River
The slope of the river more or less so that power berkurang.Lereng erosion and river transport also changed towards the box. Erosion began towards the side.

Downstream Section
The slope of the river close to zero. Small sabgat water flow, erosion almost nothing, many of the sediment, turbid water, sometimes there are shoal or island in the middle river. Directions berkelokkelok sometimes change the flow at flood time, so mempunyaai new estuary.

Beach and Sea
The coastline is the line that menujkukkan high tide average between sea and land. The beach is part of the land closest to the sea. Coasts are areas inundated by sea water at high tide and dry when the tide receded.

Most of the ocean depths generally less than 200 meters. The name of this section is a shallow sea. This section of the boundary between land and sea and is called exposure (shelf). Actual exposure, including Continental. Wide exposure will not be the same somewhere

Ocean can be divided into two parts, namely:
Sea Ingresi
Occurred because of tectonic movements, even more vertical movement that causes the presence of areas that fall. Generally ingresi sea is deep sea.

Marine transgression
Occurred because of the presence of land that fall sehinggan this area digenagi sea water or sea water itself is rising.

Swamps may be divided according to origin happened / where is; coastal marshes, swamps mountains, lowland swamp / river.

The occurrence of marsh caused by:
·         Puddle of water is not wasted because of the surrounding natural situation
·         Primary forest are opened which causes the water no longer restrained by trees which can cause erosion and flooding
·         Meeting of sea water and river water
·         sedimentation caused by natural events, then filled with water.

Geology is the study of the earth, mountains, plains and the history of life and the sequence of past, present, and future.

Some common terms are often used in geology:
atmospheric: air sheath menylimuti hidrosfera and litosfera
Hidrosfera: water membrane that covers and soak into the litosfera
Litosfera: membrane fence consisting of rocks

Some types of rocks:
Frozen Rocks
Derived from high-temperature molten glow that comes from the bowels of the earth (magma) has the properties of a hard, compact and shaped crystals

Sedimentary rocks
Derived from marine sediment material from the rock debris or earlier. Warming causes the sediment to be hard and compact

Metamorphic rocks
Derived from other rocks due to changes in temperature and pressure. These rocks form in layers and a lot of fractures

·         Lava: material that comes out of the earth in the form of molten rock avalanches from the heat.
·         Lava Hot: lava that came out at the time of occurrence of volcanic eruptions
·         Lava Cold: Happens when the eruption occurred after the eruption of rain and brought in large numbers.
·    Exhalasi: Gas and steam during volcanic eruptions (fumarole-Hcl, Solfatar-SO2, H2S, Mofet-C02, nitrogen, etc.)
·         Heat and Dust Volcanic Clouds: a hot cloud that came out due to volcanic eruptions of volcanic dust

The danger in climbing the mountain that is still active, among others;
·         rocks are prone to landslides in the area around the peak
·         There are poisonous gases in certain areas
·         When suddenly active, the potential threat of lava, lava and hot clouds.

Water from this position can be divided into:
·         meteoric water (rain)
·         surface water (rivers, lakes, seas and swamps)
·         water in the soil (water squeezed, free water, streams in limestone soil in the area)

In comparison of ground water the water that comes into the area moist soil for about 50% and 100% in dry areas, sehinggan in more humid areas will have water. In soil, the water contained in the cavities of rocks, poripori rocks, and soil. Water tends to have a low area, flowing follow the topography and joining other springs, and form a river. When the flow area or basin plain that it will form a typical marsh

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