Emergency Management is one of a number of terms which, since the end of the Cold War, have largely replaced Civil defense, whose original focus was protecting civilians from military attack. Modern thinking focuses on a more general intent to protect the civilian population in times of peace as well as in times of war. Another current term, Civil Protection is widely used within the European Union and refers to government-approved systems and resources whose task is to protect the civilian population, primarily in the event of natural and human-made disasters. Within EU countries the term Crisis Management emphasizes the political and security dimension rather than measures to satisfy the immediate needs of the civilian population.
- Communication plans with easily understandable terminology and methods.
- Proper maintenance and training of emergency services, including mass human resources such as community emergency response teams.
- Development and exercise of emergency population warning methods combined with emergency shelters and evacuation plans.
- stockpiling, inventory, and maintain disaster supplies and equipment
- Develop organizations of trained volunteers among civilian populations. (Professional emergency workers are rapidly overwhelmed in mass emergencies so trained; organized, responsible volunteers are extremely valuable. Organizations like Community Emergency Response Teams and the Red Cross are ready sources of trained volunteers. Its emergency management system has gotten high ratings from both California, and FEMA.)
- Structural Mitigation: This involves proper layout of building, particularly to make it resistant to disasters.
- Non Structural Mitigation: This involves measures taken other than improving the structure of building.